Risperidone (Risperdal®) and Methylphenidate (Ritalin®).

Both are commonly prescribed for ADD, ADHD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's, and other conditions.

There are 3 common formulations of risperidone. Each of them contain one or more troublesome "inactive ingredients":

• Amberlite® resin (IRP88) — made by cross-linking methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene. Frequent use of tablets coated with methacrylic acid copolymer has been tightly linked to fibrosing colonopathy. Divinylbenzene has been shown carcinogenic and possibly genotoxic.

Aspartame — a source of phenylalanine, aspartic acid, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, DKP, and other breakdown products

• Gelatin — a source of the excitotoxin glutamic acid

• Aluminum Lake colorings — sources of Al3+ ions. Aluminum is neurotoxic and also forms toxicants with fluoride

• Corn starch — a byproduct of corn processing and usually from genetically modified stock

• Benzoic acid — a suspected neuro, respiratory and sense organ toxicant

Metabolites from risperidone’s active ingredient C23H27FN4O2 can include fluoride and cytotoxins.

The actual effect of risperidone and it's metabolites varies significantly depending on cytochrome P-450 polymorphisms such as CYP2D6.

Cytochrome P-450 is heavily involved with the metabolism and detoxification of synthetic chemicals, and its activity is identified with Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Polymorphisms of cytochrome P-450 occur widely throughout the population.

It becomes evident that Risperdal converts into uncontrolled and unwanted chemical combinations.

The product doesn't affect "just" the target symptoms for which it is marketed.

The product insert plainly states that the mechanism of action for the treatment is unknown.

In trials typically lasting only 10 weeks, the incidence of death in elderly patients taking risperidone was 60% to 70% higher than those who didn't.

Additional research indicates the increased risk of death lasts at least 6 months.

Effects of lifetime use are not known, but using Risperdal does increase the occurrence of stroke, renal failure and hyperglycemia.

The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia (rabbit syndrome) and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative doses to the patient increase.

See this about Aspartame for insight.

Aspartame may not be the sole cause but it certainly can exacerbate the condition.

The cumulative effects of toxicants contained in Risperdal — such as aspartame, fluoride, and aluminum — are becoming increasingly well known.

In this pilot study all 12 of 12 children showed increased chromosomal abnormalities after just 3 months on methylphenidate (Ritalin).

The children were about 8 years old and given Ritalin at typical doses (20-54 mg/day).

They were tested before taking the drug and then again after 3 months.

Funding for further research was pulled by the FDA.

Noted side effects of Ritalin include

  • Involuntary and irregular muscle movements

  • Restlessness

  • Extreme drowsiness

  • Dizziness

  • Weight gain

  • Lactation in girls and boys

  • Drug-induced parkinsonism (muscle stiffness, shuffling gait, drooling, tremor; more frequent in adults and the elderly)

This report on adverse events related to the use of ADHD drugs points out

• Signs and symptoms of psychosis or mania — particularly hallucinations — can occur from ordinary doses. In roughly 90% of cases the patient had no prior history of a similar condition.

• A substantial proportion of psychosis-related cases occur in children age 10 years or less — a population in which hallucinations are not common.

• "The occurrence of such symptoms in young children may be particularly traumatic and undesirable, both to the child and the parents."

• "The predominance in young children of hallucinations, both visual and tactile, involving insects, snakes and worms is striking,..."

• The majority of reports involving aggression or violent behavior were in male children and adolescents. Between 80% and 90% had no prior history of aggression or violence.

• 20% of reports involving aggression or violent behavior were considered life-threatening or required hospital admission.

• A notable number of suicides and attempts were recorded. The authors recommended further investigation. Some attempts were in children age 10 years and younger.

The report motivated the FDA to direct manufacturers to develop patient Medication Guides for ADHD drugs.

The guides are meant to alert patients to possible cardiovascular risks and risks of adverse psychiatric symptoms.

Publishing the guides does not make the drugs safer.

Drugs involved are

Brand Generic Form
Adderall Mixed salts of a single entity amphetamine product Tablets
Adderall XR Mixed salts of a single entity amphetamine product Extended-Release Capsules
Concerta Methylphenidate hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets
Daytrana Methylphenidate Transdermal System
Desoxyn Methamphetamine hydrochloride Tablets
Dexedrine Dextroamphetamine sulfate Spansule Capsules and Tablets
Focalin Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride Tablets
Focalin XR Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules
Metadate CD Methylphenidate hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules
Methylin Methylphenidate hydrochloride Oral Solution
Methylin Methylphenidate hydrochloride Chewable Tablets
Ritalin Methylphenidate hydrochloride Tablets
Ritalin SR Methylphenidate hydrochloride Sustained-Release Tablets
Ritalin LA Methylphenidate hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules
Strattera Atomoxetine hydrochloride Capsules

See this observation about phthalates in extended-release capsules and tablets.

According to this research, the number of children age 0 to 19 taking behavioral drugs climbed over 20% in a 4 year period.

During that same period, spending on ADD/ADHD drugs overall rose 183% — but it rose 369% for children under age 5.

Spending on drugs to treat autism and conduct disorders rose 142%.

These rates continue to accelerate.

In this national study of more than 60,000 Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders,

56% used at least 1 psychotropic medication
20% used 3 or more medications concurrently

35% of users were age 3 to 5 years
18% of users were age 0 to 2 years

31% of drugs prescribed were neuroleptics
25% of drugs prescribed were antidepressants
22% of drugs prescribed were stimulants

The study also discovered that "factors unrelated to clinical presentation seem highly associated with prescribing practices".

In other words, prescriptions depend on who is paying and who is getting paid.

The pattern of prescribing drugs to children without evidence-based justification becomes obvious in a survey of related research.

Foster-care youth in particular are over-medicated.